Gangakula in India

The Gangakula have only been reported in India
Population
Main Language
Largest Religion
Christian
Evangelical
Progress
Progress Gauge
* From latest India census data.
Current Christian values may substantially differ.

Subgroups: 17 (10 largest shown)  Show all

Subgroup Name Population
Kabber 211,000
Ambig 83,000
Koli 3,600
Bhoi 3,200
Gauda 2,900
Bailgammar 2,800
Durgamurgi 2,800
Bailugar 2,700
Bovar 2,700
Haig 2,700

Introduction / History

The Gangakula or Kabbaliga or Koli have been fishermen or boatmen for hundreds of years in south India. "Koli" means boat in Sanskrit. Since fishing and making boats were considered lower occupations in Hindu society, Koli were placed in a lower caste. They also work as village watchmen and as landless farm laborers. Even today many Koli, both men and women, are illiterate. During the British period, Koli became part of small armies who maintained order in south India. Modern education is giving young Gangakula an opportunity to rise above their ancestors' status by becoming doctors, teachers and business owners.

The primary language of the Gangakula is Kannada.


Where Are they Located?

The vast majority of Gangakula live in the south Indian state of Karnataka. Others live in Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and other areas of south India.


What Are Their Lives Like?

Many Gangakula still work in their traditional job as fishermen, ferrymen and boat builders. They fish the rivers, lakes and ocean of south India. They ferry people across rivers where no bridge is available. They sell their fish in the villages and cities. Some also work on farms owned by others. Women work as domestics to gain more income for their families.

Families arrange marriages. Girls marry in their mid-teens while boys marry in their late teens. Cousin marriages are common. Village Brahman priests perform the weddings. Sons inherit family property with the eldest son getting the home. New couples live near or with the groom's family.

Lack of education has hampered the Gangakula from raising their status. That is slowly changing with young people graduating from college and entering professional careers.


What Are Their Beliefs?

The Gangakula are Hindus. They worship and serve the gods of the Hindu pantheon. They pay special attention to Ganesha, the god of success and good fortune and Durga, the warrior-mother goddess who fights evil spirits. Due to their low status Gangakula are often denied entrance into Hindu temples. They build temporary temples called pantals to Ganesha and Durga.

The Gangakula participate in the major Hindu holidays like Holi, the festival of colors, Diwali, the festival of lights and Navratri, the nine-day celebration in autumn.


What Are Their Needs?

The Gangakula need to hear the good news of Jesus Christ in a way they are understand. They need to see that Hinduism will not save them from their sins. They need help in providing an education for their children.


Prayer Points

Pray that God sends Christian workers and teachers to help the Gangakula escape their spiritual and physical poverty.
Pray the Gangakula see Christ's love in the lives of Indian Christians.
Pray the Lord opens the heart of the Gangakula and many become believers in a growing church in their community.


Scripture Prayers for the Gangakula in India.


References

shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/174766/10/10_chapter%203.pdf


Profile Source:   David Kugel  

Additional Info
Global Prayer Digest: 2020-01-21
People Name General Gangakula
People Name in Country Gangakula
Pronunciation gohn-GAH-koo-lah
Population this Country 1,829,000
Population all Countries 1,829,000
Total Countries 1
Indigenous Yes
Progress Scale 1
Unreached Yes
Frontier People Group Yes
GSEC 2  (per PeopleGroups.org)
Pioneer Workers Needed 37
Alternate Names Ambiga; Bhoi; Gam Naik; Gamvakkal; Gangabigur; Gangamakkalu; Gangaputra; Gangauda; Gangemakkalu; Gaurimata; Gowrimatha; Kabbali; Kabbera; Kahar; Kharia; Koli; गंगकुला
People ID 16785
ROP3 Code 112046
Affinity Bloc South Asian Peoples
People Cluster South Asia Hindu - other
People Group Gangakula
Ethnic Code CNN25
Total Subgroups 17 (only 15 largest shown)
  Kabber 211,000
  Ambig 83,000
  Koli 3,600
  Bhoi 3,200
  Gauda 2,900
  Bailgammar 2,800
  Durgamurgi 2,800
  Bailugar 2,700
  Bovar 2,700
  Haig 2,700
Country India
Region Asia, South
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
National Bible Society Website
Persecution Rank 10  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Total States on file 11
Largest States
Karnataka
1,665,000
Tamil Nadu
80,000
Maharashtra
38,000
Andhra Pradesh
14,000
Goa
10,000
Telangana
5,200
Kerala
2,500
Delhi
900
Gujarat
300
Madhya Pradesh
60
Chhattisgarh
30
Districts Interactive map, listing and data download
Specialized Website South Asia Peoples
Country India
Region Asia, South
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
National Bible Society Website
Persecution Rank 10  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Total States 11
  Karnataka 1,665,000
  Tamil Nadu 80,000
  Maharashtra 38,000
  Andhra Pradesh 14,000
  Goa 10,000
  Telangana 5,200
  Kerala 2,500
  Delhi 900
  Gujarat 300
  Madhya Pradesh 60
  Chhattisgarh 30
Website South Asia Peoples
Primary Language Kannada (1,470,000 speakers)
Language Code kan   Ethnologue Listing
Language Written Yes   ScriptSource Listing
Total Languages 8
Secondary Languages
Telugu
30,000
Konkani, Goan
21,000
Konkani
16,000
Tulu
12,000
Marathi
1,200
Tamil
600
Malayalam
60
Primary Language Kannada (1,470,000 speakers)
Language Code kan   Ethnologue Listing
Total Languages 8
Secondary Languages
  Telugu 30,000
  Konkani, Goan 21,000
  Konkani 16,000
  Tulu 12,000
  Marathi 1,200
  Tamil 600
  Malayalam 60
People Groups Speaking Kannada

Primary Language:  Kannada

Bible Translation Status  (Years)
Bible-Portions Yes  (1812-1988)
Bible-New Testament Yes  (1823-1995)
Bible-Complete Yes  (1827-2022)
Bible-NT Audio Online
Bible-NT Text Online
Possible Print Bibles
Amazon
World Bibles
Forum Bible Agencies
National Bible Societies
World Bible Finder
Virtual Storehouse
Resource Type Resource Name
Audio Recordings Audio Bible teaching
Audio Recordings Love letter to you from scripture
Audio Recordings Online New Testament
Audio Recordings Online New Testament
Audio Recordings Online New Testament
Audio Recordings Online New Testament
Audio Recordings Online Scripture / Bible
Audio Recordings Oral Bible stories
Audio Recordings Oral Bible Stories
Audio Recordings Story of Jesus audio
Film / Video Following Jesus video
Film / Video God's Story video
Film / Video Jesus Film: view in Kannada
Film / Video LUMO film of Gospels
Film / Video Magdalena video
Film / Video My Last Day video, anime
Film / Video Story of Jesus for Children
General Biblical answers to your questions
General Four Spiritual Laws
General Gospel resources links
Primary Religion: Hinduism
Major Religion Percent *
Buddhism
0.01 %
Christianity  (Evangelical 0.00 %)
0.00 %
Ethnic Religions
0.00 %
Hinduism
99.99 %
Islam
0.00 %
Non-Religious
0.00 %
Other / Small
0.00 %
Unknown
0.00 %
* From latest India census data.
Current Christian values may substantially differ.
Photo Source Steve Evans - Flickr  Creative Commons 
Map Source People Group Location: Omid. Other geography / data: GMI. Map Design: Joshua Project  
Profile Source David Kugel  
Data Sources Data is compiled from various sources. Read more