Mountain Jewish in Azerbaijan

Main Language
Largest Religion
Progress Gauge

Introduction / History

Who are the Tat speaking peoples, and from where did they come? They believe themselves to be descended from Jewish taken during the Assyrian captivity and displaced to the cities of the Medes, who spoke a dialect of Old Persian. The Tat language is based on Persian, just like Iran's Farsi language. Interestingly enough, the Tat language is spoken today by Muslim and even Christian peoples, as well as Jewish ones.

Formerly many Tat speaking Jewish lived in the Caucasus Mountains of the former Soviet Union (FSU). Today most of these people, also known as mountain Jews, have left the FSU. Many are still scattered in southern Russia's mountainous Daghestan region and neighboring Azerbaijan. Yet one fourth of them live in Brooklyn, New York, and about half now live in Israel.

Because of their unique history and culture, Jewish have a strong sense of identity. Although they have much in common with other Jewish around the world, the Jewish of Asia have a very distinctive lifestyle. Most of the Jewish in this part of Asia are Ashkenazim, or descendants of the Jewish who inhabited the Germanic region of Europe. One of their most distinguishing features is their use of the Yiddish language (a German dialect that has some Hebrew elements). Most of the Ashkenazim came into Central Asia from other parts of the Soviet Union before and during World War II.

Bukharan Jewish are an indigenous group within Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. They are known as "Bukharan" because they settled primarily in Bukhara, Uzbekistan; but, they prefer to be known as "Israel" or "Yahudi." They claim descent from the ten tribes of Israel who were exiled to Persia in the fifth century. They speak Bokhara, a Jewish dialect of Tajik. Some Jewish also live in India, mainly in Bombay and the surrounding areas. They are known as Bene Israel ("the Children of Israel"). They speak an Indo-Aryan language called Marathi.

What Are Their Lives Like?

The Jewish of Ashkenazic descent have lifestyles that are very much like those of other Jewish in the former Soviet Union. However, they were allowed greater freedoms than the Jewish in other parts of the Soviet Union, and they clung to their Judaism tenaciously. While some of them work as peddlers, shoemakers, or barbers, many have become factory laborers or workers on "collective (community) farms." Recently, large numbers of Jewish have left Uzbekistan due to economic hardship and fear of a nationalistic trend in the government.

In past centuries, the Bukharan Jewish have experienced much discrimination from the predominant Muslim population. They were forced to live in isolated parts of the cities, called mahallas; to wear special signs on their clothing, which marked them as Jewish; and to pay special taxes. Only in the last ten years have Bukharan Jewish been able to give cultural expression openly without fear of persecution. Today, a number of Hebrew study groups have been organized and are growing stronger.

During Soviet rule, both Bukharan men and women worked in factories that produced butter, bricks, or textiles. Recently, they have returned to many of their traditional crafts, such as shoemaking, hairdressing, tailoring, and photography. The women are particularly known for their dancing at both Jewish and Muslim weddings. There are also a large number of well-educated Bukharan Jewish working as engineers, doctors, teachers, and musicians.

Bukharan Jewish males were the heads of their patrilineal (descent traced through the males) extended families. Now, a pattern of separate nuclear families is becoming predominant. Bukharan Jewish nearly always marry other Bukharan Jewish. The parents of the groom send a matchmaker to the parents of the bride, and both dowry and bride-price must be settled prior to the engagement. Divorce is permitted among Bukharan Jewish and a law exists to regulate the marriages of widows.

In Bombay, the Jewish are employed in numerous professions. Some of them work in the service industry, or as clerks, mechanics, white-collar workers, and skilled laborers. A significant number are professionals such as doctors, teachers, and lawyers.

Most Bombay Jewish families are typical nuclear families. That is, they are composed of a man, a woman, and their dependents. In order to keep wealth and prestige within the family, the Bombay Jewish have traditionally preferred marriage between cousins. Divorce is completely disapproved of and is very uncommon.

What Are Their Beliefs?

The Ashkenazic Jewish who live in cities have a weak religious lifestyle and some have intermarried with Muslims. However, the Bukharan and Bombay Jewish adhere to all traditional Jewish beliefs. They follow the Law of Moses, observing strict dietary laws, circumcising all male children, and observing the Sabbath. They also celebrate Jewish festivals like Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement), and Passover.

What Are Their Needs?

Many of the Ashkenazic Jewish have intermarried with the Muslim community. Because they are open to others outside the Jewish community, perhaps they will be open to the Gospel. The Bukharan Jewish of Uzbekistan are uncertain about the direction of their nation. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan is going through rapid and drastic changes. Anti-Semitism (persecution of Jewish) is a possible result of the rise in nationalism. The Bombay Jewish are strongly influenced by tradition, making them unreceptive to change. Also, since they are highly educated, their intellect may be a stumbling block to the acceptance of the Gospel.

Each of these Jewish communities needs to be introduced to Jesus, their Messiah. Intercession must be made for the Jewish if they are to come to an understanding of the Gospel and a saving knowledge of Christ.

Prayer Points

Pray that Christian materials will be translated accurately and distributed widely to Jewish Tat speakers.
Pray for a spiritual hunger among the many Jewish Tats who view their "Jewishness" as an ethnic identity but with no religious belief.
Pray that Jewish people will understand that Jesus is the long-awaited Messiah.

Scripture Prayers for the Jewish Tat, Mountain Jewish in Azerbaijan.

Profile Source:   Bethany World Prayer Center / Global Prayer Digest  

People Name General Jewish Tat, Mountain Jewish
People Name in Country Jewish Tat, Mountain Jewish
Natural Name Mountain Jewish
Pronunciation MOUN-ten joo
Alternate Names Bik; Caucasian Mountain Jew; Jewish; Judeo-Tatic; Juhuri; Mountain Jews; Tat
Population this Country 15,000
Population all Countries 105,000
Total Countries 4
Indigenous Yes
Progress Scale 1
Unreached Yes
Frontier People Group Yes
GSEC 1  (per
Pioneer Workers Needed 1
People ID 10839
ROP3 Code 116827
ROP25 Code 303368
ROP25 Name Jewish
Country Azerbaijan
Region Asia, Central
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
Persecution Rank Not ranked
Location in Country Quba district: Baku and Krasnaya Sloboda village; Oguz district: Vartashen village.   Source:  Ethnologue 2016
Country Azerbaijan
Region Asia, Central
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
Persecution Rank Not ranked
Location in Country Quba district: Baku and Krasnaya Sloboda village; Oguz district: Vartashen village..   Source:  Ethnologue 2016
Primary Religion: Ethnic Religions
Religion Subdivision: Judaism
Major Religion Percent
0.00 %
Christianity  (Evangelical 0.00 %)
0.00 %
Ethnic Religions
80.00 %
0.00 %
0.00 %
20.00 %
Other / Small
0.00 %
0.00 %
Primary Language Judeo-Tat (15,000 speakers)
Language Code jdt   Ethnologue Listing
Language Written Yes   ScriptSource Listing
Total Languages 1
Primary Language Judeo-Tat (15,000 speakers)
Language Code jdt   Ethnologue Listing
Total Languages 1
People Groups Speaking Judeo-Tat

Primary Language:  Judeo-Tat

Bible Translation Status  (Years)
Bible-Portions Yes  (2011)
Bible-New Testament No
Bible-Complete No
Possible Print Bibles
World Bibles
Forum Bible Agencies
National Bible Societies
World Bible Finder
Virtual Storehouse
Resource Type Resource Name Source
Film / Video Jesus Film: view in Judeo-Tat Jesus Film Project
General Scripture Earth Gospel resources links Scripture Earth
Photo Source Adam Jones - Flickr  Creative Commons 
Map Source Bryan Nicholson / cartoMission  
Profile Source Bethany World Prayer Center / Global Prayer Digest 
Data Sources Data is compiled from various sources. Learn more.

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